The 19th century – The Development of Modern Nation States, 1848–1914 CIE GCSE History 9-1 Lesson Resources

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The 19th century: The Development of Modern Nation States, 1848–1914

The content for this course focuses on the following key questions:

Were the Revolutions of 1848 important?

  • Why were there so many revolutions in 1848?
  • Did the revolutions have anything in common?
  • Why did most of the revolutions fail?
  • Did the revolutions change anything?
  • The nature of revolutions in 1848, and the influence of liberalism and nationalism
  • Causes and events of revolutions in France, Italy, Germany and the Austrian Empire
  • Reasons for the failure of the revolutions

How was Italy unified?

  • Why was Italy not unified in 1848–49?
  • How important was Garibaldi’s contribution to unifying Italy?
  • Did Cavour help or hinder the unification of Italy?
  • How important for other European countries were moves towards Italian unification?
  • Austrian influence over Italy
  • Italian nationalism and the role of Mazzini
  • Events of 1848–49
  • Victor Emmanuel II and Cavour: Plombières, war with Austria in 1859
  • Garibaldi and the invasion of Sicily and Naples
  • The creation of the Kingdom of Italy, completion of unification by 1870

How was Germany unified?

  • Why was Germany not unified in 1848–50?
  • How did Bismarck bring about Austria’s defeat of 1866?
  • How did Bismarck bring about France’s defeat of 1870?
  • How far was Bismarck responsible for the unification of Germany?
  • German nationalism
  • The Zollverein
  • The 1848 revolution in Prussia
  • The setting up and eventual failure of the Frankfurt Parliament
  • Re-establishment of Austrian influence in Germany by 1850
  • Bismarck as Prussian Minister–President
  • Bismarck’s foreign policy to 1871: Schleswig-Holstein; the Austro–Prussian War and its consequences; relations with France; the Spanish Succession and the Franco-Prussian War; the creation of the German empire

Why was there a civil war in the United States and what were its results?

  • How far did slavery cause the Civil War?
  • What was the significance of Lincoln’s election as president?
  • Why was the North able to win the war?
  • Did the war change anything?
  • Causes and consequences of the American Civil War, 1820–77: differences between North and South; slavery, slave states and free states; abolitionism; the 1860 election and secession of the Southern states; reasons for the North’s victory; the role of Lincoln; reconstruction; how successful was reconstruction?

Why, and with what effects, did Europeans expand their overseas empires in the nineteenth century?

  • What were the motives behind European imperialism?
  • How varied were the impacts of European imperialism on Africans?
  • Why, and with what effects, did Indians resist British rule?
  • Why, and with what effects, did the Chinese resist European influence?
  • Reasons for imperialism: economic, military, geopolitical, religious and cultural motives
  • Europeans in Africa: case studies of French, British and Belgian imperialism, and their impacts on Africans: the French model of assimilation and direct rule; Faidherbe and Senegal; the British model of indirect rule; Lugard and Nigeria; the Belgians and private imperialism; Leopold II and the Congo
  • The British in India: the Mutiny, and changes it brought to British rule
  • Europeans and China: the Opium Wars, the Boxer Rising and their results

What caused the First World War?

  • Did the Alliance System make war more likely or less likely?
  • How far did colonial problems create tensions between the Great Powers?
  • Why were problems in the Balkans so difficult for the Great Powers to solve?
  • How did the assassination of Franz Ferdinand lead to war?
  • The origins of the First World War, 1890–1914: the Alliance System; the arms race; colonial rivalries; developments in the Balkans; the crisis of June–July 1914 and the outbreak of war

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