AQA GCSE History: Russia, 1894–1945 – Tsardom and communism

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AC Russia, 1894–1945: Tsardom and communism

In this module, the development of Russia during a turbulent half-century of change is the key focus. As a period of autocracy and communism, from the fall of the Tsardom and the rise and consolidation of communism, students will study the political, economic, social and cultural aspects of these two developments and the role ideas played in influencing change. They will also look at the role of key individuals and groups in shaping change and the impact the developments had on them. This module consists of three parts detailed below:

Part one: The end of Tsardom

Themes explored include:

  • Russia’s economy and society: industrialisation; living and working conditions in cities and villages.
  • Nicholas II’s autocracy and the court: the growth of revolutionary opposition; the 1905 Revolution and October Manifesto; the impact of, and reactions to, attempts to reform Russia up to 1914; the Dumas and political stalemate; Stolypin's policies – land reform, industry and use of oppression.
  • The First World War: the impact of military defeats on Tsarist government; social and economic effects of war on cities and the countryside; unpopularity of the Romanovs, including the role of Rasputin; the Tsar’s abdication.

Part two: Lenin's new society

Themes explored include:

  • The Provisional Government: its failure to deal with Russia's social, economic and military problems; Lenin and Trotsky; the growth of Bolshevik organisation; the October/November

Revolution:

  • The impact of Lenin's dictatorship: the end of the First World War; the Cheka; the Red Army; causes, nature and consequences of the Civil War and Bolshevik success; propaganda.
  • Social and economic developments: War Communism; the Kronstadt Rising; the New Economic Policy (NEP); the achievements of Lenin and Trotsky.

Part three: Stalin's USSR

Themes explored include:

  • Stalin the dictator: the power struggle to succeed Lenin; the control of the Communist party over the government; the Terror and the Purges; the army; secret police; labour camps; censorship; the cult of personality; propaganda.
  • Stalin's modernisation of the USSR: collectivisation; the Five Year Plans; social and economic consequences for Kulaks, city dwellers, women, professional and industrial workers; the extent of modernisation.
  • Impact of the Second World War: Stalin's wartime leadership; political, economic and social problems caused by the Great Patriotic War up to 1945.

Resource Examples

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This module download also includes the following teaching resources:

  • AQA GCSE History Exam Booklets (2020 & 2021 Syllabus) (zip)
  • L1 Card Sort Activity For Causes Of 1905 Revolution (pdf)
  • L1 Card Sort Activity For Causes Of 1905 Revolution (docx)
  • L1 Imperial Russia Blank Map (pdf)
  • L1 Imperial Russia Blank Map (doc)
  • L1 Nicholas Ii Diagram (pptx)
  • L1 Nicholas Ii Diagram (pdf)
  • L1 Russia 1905-1914 (pptx)
  • L1 Russia Up To 1914 (pptx)
  • L1 Russian Up To 1914 Homework (pdf)
  • L1 Russian Up To 1914 Homework (doc)
  • L1 Stolypin Reforms Comprehension Sheet (doc)
  • L1 Stolypin Reforms Comprehension Sheet (pdf)
  • L10 Five Year Plans (doc)
  • L10 Five Year Plans (pdf)
  • L11 Stalin And Wwii (pdf)
  • L11 Stalin And Wwii (docx)
  • L2 The Impact Of The First World War On Russia (docx)
  • L2 The Impact Of The First World War On Russia (pdf)
  • L2 Wwi Brusilov Offensive (mp4)
  • L3 1917 Revolutions (pptx)
  • L3 Homework (doc)
  • L3 Homework (pdf)
  • L3 Russian Revolution Worksheet (pdf)
  • L3 Russian Revolution Worksheet (doc)
  • L3 The Russian Revolution 1917 (mp4)
  • L3 Vladimir Lenin Biography (mp4)
  • L3 What Problems Faced The Provisional Government Charts (docx)
  • L3 What Problems Faced The Provisional Government Charts (pdf)
  • L4 Civil War Market Place Information (pdf)
  • L4 Civil War Market Place Information (docx)
  • L4 Practice Conclusions Civil War (docx)
  • L4 Practice Conclusions Civil War (pdf)
  • L4 Russian Civil War (pptx)
  • L4 Russian Civil War (pptx)
  • L4 Russian Civil War 3 Minute History (mp4)
  • L4 Russian Civil War 3 Minute History (mp4)
  • L4 Tsar S Family Death National Geographic (mp4)
  • L4 Why Did The Bolsheviks Win The Civil War (pdf)
  • L4 Why Did The Bolsheviks Win The Civil War (docx)
  • L5 Lenin S Economic Policy- From War Communism To Nep (mp4)
  • L5 New Economic Policy (pdf)
  • L5 New Economic Policy (doc)
  • L5 New Economic Policy (pdf)
  • L5 New Economic Policy (doc)
  • L5 New Economic Policy Comprehension Sheet (doc)
  • L5 New Economic Policy Comprehension Sheet (pdf)
  • L5 Russian Economic Policies (pptx)
  • L5 The Kronstadt Uprising (mp4)
  • L5 War Communism (mp4)
  • L5 War Communism (mp4)
  • L5 War Communism Principles Chart (docx)
  • L5 War Communism Principles Chart (pdf)
  • L5 What Was Lenin S New Economic Policy- Ap Euro Bit By Bit 40 (mp4)
  • L6 Did Lenin Succeed In Establishing A Communist State In Russia (docx)
  • L6 Did Lenin Succeed In Establishing A Communist State In Russia (pdf)
  • L6 Stalin S Rise To Power (pptx)
  • L6 Stalin V Trotsky (doc)
  • L6 Stalin V Trotsky (pdf)
  • L6 Theories About The Purges Sheet (docx)
  • L6 Theories About The Purges Sheet (pdf)
  • L7 Lenin Dies (pptx)
  • L7 Lenin S Funeral Moscow 1924 (mp4)
  • L8 Stalin Purges Enemies And Friends Alike (mp4)
  • L8 Stalin Purges Enemies And Friends Alike (mp4)
  • L8 Stalin S Apparatus Of Terror Chart (pdf)
  • L8 Stalin S Apparatus Of Terror Chart (docx)
  • L8 Stalin S Terror (pptx)
  • L8 Stalin S Terror (pptx)
  • L8 Stalin S Terror1 (pptx)
  • L8 Stalin S Terror1 (pptx)
  • L8 Stalin- The Purges (mp4)
  • L8 Stalin- The Purges (mp4)
  • L8 Terror Information Sheet (pdf)
  • L8 Terror Information Sheet (doc)
  • L8 Terrors Worksheet (pdf)
  • L8 Terrors Worksheet (doc)
  • L9 Causes Of Collectivisation Statements (pdf)
  • L9 Causes Of Collectivisation Statements (docx)
  • L9 Collectivisation (pptx)
  • L9 Collectivisation (pptx)
  • L9 To What Extent Was Collectivisation A Success Revision Notes (docx)
  • L9 To What Extent Was Collectivisation A Success Revision Notes (pdf)