CIE IGCSE History: South Africa, c.1940–c.1994

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Depth Study F: South Africa, 1940–94

What were the foundations of the apartheid state?

  • How far had segregation been established by 1940?
  • What was the impact of government policies on the non-white population by 1940?
  • How successful was the economic development of South Africa by 1945?
  • Why did the National Party win the election of 1948?

How successfully was apartheid established between 1948 and 1966?

  • What were the main features of the apartheid system set up by the National Party after 1948?
  • What consequences did apartheid have for the people of South Africa?
  • How did opposition to apartheid develop between 1948 and 1964?
  • What were the effects of the government’s response to opposition by 1966?

To what extent did South Africa change between 1966 and 1980?

  • How significant were the policies of the National Party governments from 1966 to 1980?
  • To what extent did black opposition change in this period?
  • How far did economic factors improve lives by 1980?
  • What was the impact of external opposition to apartheid?

Why did white minority rule come to an end?

  • What were the effects of the policies of P W Botha?
  • What was the significance of individual leaders in the collapse of apartheid?
  • Why did violence increase between 1980 and the early 1990s?
  • To what extent was there a smooth transition of power between 1989 and 1994?

Further specified content can be found on page 26 of the Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus handbook (For examination in June and November 2020, 2021 and 2022)

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