CIE IGCSE: The 20th century: International Relations since 1919

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Core Content: Option B  - The twentieth century: international relations since 1919

Was the Treaty of Versailles fair?

• What were the motives and aims of the Big Three at Versailles?
• Why did the victors not get everything they wanted?
• What was the impact of the Treaty on Germany up to the end of 1923?
• Could the Treaty be justified at the time?

To what extent was the League of Nations a success?

• How far did weaknesses in the League’s organisation and membership make failure inevitable?
• How successful were the League’s attempts at peacekeeping in the 1920s?
• How important was the League’s humanitarian work?
• How far did the Depression make the work of the League more difficult in the 1930s?

How far was Hitler’s foreign policy to blame for the outbreak of war in Europe in 1939?

• What were the long-term consequences of the Treaty of Versailles?
• What were the consequences of the failures of the League of Nations in the 1930s?
• Was the policy of appeasement justified?
• How important was the Nazi–Soviet Pact?
• Why did Britain and France declare war on Germany in September 1939?

Who was to blame for the Cold War?

• Why did the US–Soviet alliance begin to break down in 1945?
• How had the USSR gained control of Eastern Europe by 1948?
• How did the United States react to Soviet expansionism?
• What were the consequences of the Berlin Blockade?
• Who was more to blame for starting the Cold War: the United States or the USSR?

How effectively did the United States contain the spread of Communism?

• The United States and events in Korea, 1950–53
• The United States and events in Cuba, 1959–62
• American involvement in Vietnam, 1955–75

How secure was the USSR’s control over Eastern Europe, 1948–c.1989?

• Why was there opposition to Soviet control in Hungary in 1956 and Czechoslovakia in 1968, and how did
the USSR react to this opposition?
• How similar were events in Hungary in 1956 and in Czechoslovakia in 1968?
• Why was the Berlin Wall built in 1961?
• What was the significance of Solidarity in Poland for the decline of Soviet influence in Eastern Europe?
• How far was Gorbachev personally responsible for the collapse of Soviet control over Eastern Europe?

Why did events in the Gulf matter, c.1970–2000? (removed in 2024 syllabus)

• Why was Saddam Hussein able to come to power in Iraq?
• What was the nature of Saddam Hussein’s rule in Iraq?
• Why was there a revolution in Iran in 1979?
• What were the causes and consequences of the Iran–Iraq War, 1980–88?
• Why did the First Gulf War take place?

Resource Examples

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This module download also includes the following teaching resources:

  • Module 7 Consequences Wall Information (pdf)
  • Module 7 Saddam Hussein S Victims Chart (pdf)
  • Module 4 The Arms Race (pdf)
  • Module 7 Iran Iraq War 3 Minute History (mp4)
  • Module 4 The Arms Race (doc)
  • Module 6 Gorbachev Information (pptx)
  • Module 4 Source Pictures For Students (pptx)
  • Module 7 Saddam Hussein S Victims Chart (docx)
  • Module 6 Prague Spring Information Sheet (pptx)
  • Module 7 Consequences Wall Information (docx)
  • Module 4 Difference Between Nations Statements (pdf)
  • Module 6 What Was The Prague Spring- (mp4)
  • Module 3 British Declaration Of War Radio Broadcast 3 Sept 1939 1 (mp4)
  • Module 4 Difference Between Nations Statements (pptx)
  • Module 4 Truman Doctrine And Marshall Plan Information Sheet (pptx)
  • Module 6 Solidarity Movement Poland 1989 (mp4)
  • Module 6 Gorbachev Information (pdf)
  • Module 6 Brezhnev Doctrine (pdf)
  • Module 4 Ideological Differences Worksheet Low Ability Sheet (pdf)
  • Module 7 Iran S Revolutions- Crash Course World History 226 (mp4)
  • Module 4 Timeline Information (pdf)
  • Module 4 Truman Doctrine And Marshall Plan Information Sheet (pdf)
  • Module 4 Source Information For Students (pptx)
  • Module 6 Prague Spring Information Sheet (pdf)
  • Module 4 Berlin Airlift Fact File (pdf)
  • Module 4 Timeline Information (pptx)
  • Module 4 Source Pictures For Students (pdf)
  • Module7 Consequences Of The Iran-Iraq War Chart (docx)
  • Module 7 Consequences Of The Iran-Iraq War Chart (pdf)
  • Module 5 The History Of The Cuban Missile Crisis Matthew A (mp4)
  • Module 4 Warsaw Pact (pptx)
  • Module 6 Brezhnev Doctrine (pptx)
  • Module 4 The Berlin Blockade 10m (mp4)
  • Module 4 Cominform And Comecon Information Sheet (pdf)
  • Module 4- Student Fill In Sheet Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan And Soviet Response (pdf)
  • Module 7 1979 Iranian Revolution (mp4)
  • Module 4 Group Packs (pptx)
  • Module 4 Group Packs (pdf)
  • Module 4 Source Information For Students (pdf)
  • Module 7 Iranian Revolution (pptx)
  • Module 6 Solidarity (pptx)
  • Module 4 Berlin Airlift Fact File (docx)
  • Module 6 Czechoslovakia 1968 (pptx)
  • Module 6 Gorbachev And The End Of The Cold War (pptx)
  • Module 7 Revolution In Iran (pptx)
  • Module 4 Ideological Differences (pptx)
  • Module 4 Us-Soviet Relations (pptx)
  • Module 4 Truman Doctrine And Marshall Plan (pptx)
  • Module 3 Road To Wwii Worksheet (pdf)
  • Module 7 Saddam Hussein And Iraq (pptx)
  • Module 4 Cominform And Comecon (pptx)
  • Module 4 Hungarian Uprising (pptx)
  • Module 1- Aims Of The Big Three Fill In (pdf)
  • Module 5 How Effectively Did The Usa Contain The Spread Of Communism (docx)
  • Module 5 Cuban Missile Crisis (pptx)
  • Module 3 Appeasement Ariana Grande One Last Time Parody Mrbettsclass 1 (mp4)
  • Module 3 Nazi Foreign Policy- Hitler S Foreign Policy Goals 1933 1 (mp4)
  • Module 4 Tehran Yalta And Potsdam Conferences (pptx)
  • Module 7 Gulf War (pptx)
  • Module 1 Issues For The Victors After Wwi (pdf)
  • Module 2 League Of Nations Chart (pptx)
  • Module 3 Road To Wwii Worksheet (docx)
  • Module 2 League Of Nations Additional Source Homework (doc)
  • Module 1 Issues For The Victors After Wwi (docx)
  • Module 2 League Of Nations Additional Source Homework (pdf)
  • Module 4 Berlin Crisis (pptx)
  • Module 3 Nazi Germany Foreign Policy (pptx)
  • Module 5 How Effectively Did The Usa Contain The Spread Of Communism (pdf)
  • Module 1 Aims Of The Big Three Fill In (docx)
  • Module 2 League Of Nations Chart (pdf)
  • Module 1 Aims Of The Big Three Chart (docx)
  • Module 3 Hitler S Foreign Policy (pptx)
  • Module 1 Aims Of The Big Three Chart (pdf)
  • Module 1 Treaty Of Versailles (pptx)
  • Module 3 Appeasement (pptx)
  • Module 2 League Of Nations (pptx)
  • CIE Core Content Option A Exam Booklets (zip)