CIE IGCSE: The 20th century: International Relations since 1919

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Core Content: Option B  - The twentieth century: international relations since 1919

Were the peace treaties of 1919–23 fair?

  • What were the motives and aims of the Big Three at Versailles?
  • Why did all the victors not get everything they wanted?
  • What was the impact of the peace treaty on Germany up to 1923?
  • Could the treaties be justified at the time?

To what extent was the League of Nations a success?

  • How successful was the League in the 1920s?
  • How far did weaknesses in the League’s organisation make failure inevitable?
  • How far did the Depression make the work of the League more difficult?
  • How successful was the League in the 1930s?

Why had international peace collapsed by 1939?

  • What were the long-term consequences of the peace treaties of 1919–23?
  • What were the consequences of the failures of the League in the 1930s?
  • How far was Hitler’s foreign policy to blame for the outbreak of war in 1939?
  • Was the policy of appeasement justified?
  • How important was the Nazi–Soviet Pact?
  • Why did Britain and France declare war on Germany in September 1939?

Who was to blame for the Cold War?

  • Why did the US–Soviet alliance begin to break down in 1945?
  • How had the USSR gained control of Eastern Europe by 1948?
  • How did the United States react to Soviet expansionism?
  • What were the consequences of the Berlin Blockade?
  • Who was the more to blame for starting the Cold War: the United States or the USSR?

How effectively did the United States contain the spread of Communism?

  • The United States and events in Korea, 1950–53
  • The United States and events in Cuba, 1959–62
  • American involvement in Vietnam.

How secure was the USSR’s control over Eastern Europe, 1948–c.1989?

  • Why was there opposition to Soviet control in Hungary in 1956 and Czechoslovakia in 1968, and how did the USSR react to this opposition?
  • How similar were events in Hungary in 1956 and in Czechoslovakia in 1968?
  • Why was the Berlin Wall built in 1961?
  • What was the significance of ‘Solidarity’ in Poland for the decline of Soviet influence in
  • Eastern Europe?
  • How far was Gorbachev personally responsible for the collapse of Soviet control over Eastern Europe?

Why did events in the Gulf matter, c.1970–2000?

  • Why was Saddam Hussein able to come to power in Iraq?
  • What was the nature of Saddam Hussein’s rule in Iraq?
  • Why was there a revolution in Iran in 1979?
  • What were the causes and consequences of the Iran–Iraq War, 1980–88?
  • Why did the First Gulf War take place?

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